In this review, Emma Wilson and colleagues aim to engage researchers in the discussion on research reproducibility and to provide the tools necessary to increase the reproducibility of their research. The authors first highlight the causes and potential impact of non-reproducible research and emphasise the benefits of working reproducibly for the researcher and broader research community. They address specific targets for improvement and steps that individual researchers can take to increase the reproducibility of their work. The authors next provide recommendations for improving the design and conduct of experiments, focusing on in vivo animal experiments. They describe common sources of poor internal validity of experiments and offer practical guidance for limiting these potential sources of bias at different experimental stages, as well as discussing other important considerations during experimental design. The authors also provide a list of key resources available to researchers to improve experimental design, conduct, and reporting. This review emphasises the importance of reproducible work and aims to empower every individual researcher to contribute to the reproducibility of research in their field.